Thursday, October 30, 2014

11. Obsessive-compulsive (anankastic) personality disorder

Obsessive-compulsive or anankastic personality disorder (not to be confused with obsessive-compulsive disorder or OCD) is characterized by excessive preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organisation, or schedules; perfectionism so extreme that it prevents a task from being completed; and devotion to work and productivity at the expense of leisure and relationships. A person with anankastic personality disorder is typically doubting and cautious, rigid and controlling, humorless, and miserly. His or her underlying high level of anxiety arises from a perceived lack of control over a universe that escapes his or her understanding. As a natural consequence, he or she has little tolerance for grey areas and tends to simplify the universe by seeing actions and beliefs as either absolutely right or absolutely wrong. His or her relationships with friends, colleagues, and family tend to be strained by the unreasonable and inflexible demands that he or she makes upon them. 

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is characterized by a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency.
When rules and established procedures do not dictate the correct answer, decision making may become a time-consuming, often painful process. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder may have such difficulty deciding which tasks take priority or what is the best way of doing some particular task that they may never get started on anything.
They are prone to become upset or angry in situations in which they are not able to maintain control of their physical or interpersonal environment, although the anger is typically not expressed directly. For example, a person may be angry when service in a restaurant is poor, but instead of complaining to the management, the individual ruminates about how much to leave as a tip. On other occasions, anger may be expressed with righteous indignation over a seemingly minor matter.
People with this disorder may be especially attentive to their relative status in dominance-submission relationships and may display excessive deference to an authority they respect and excessive resistance to authority that they do not respect.
Individuals with this disorder usually express affection in a highly controlled or stilted fashion and may be very uncomfortable in the presence of others who are emotionally expressive. Their everyday relationships have a formal and serious quality, and they may be stiff in situations in which others would smile and be happy (e.g., greeting a lover at the airport). They carefully hold themselves back until they are sure that whatever they say will be perfect. They may be preoccupied with logic and intellect.
A personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates from the norm of the individual’s culture. The pattern is seen in two or more of the following areas: cognition; affect; interpersonal functioning; or impulse control. The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations. It typically leads to significant distress or impairment in social, work or other areas of functioning. The pattern is stable and of long duration, and its onset can be traced back to early adulthood or adolescence.

Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:
  • Is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
  • Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)
  • Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)
  • Is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
  • Is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
  • Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
  • Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
  • Shows significant rigidity and stubbornness
Because personality disorders describe long-standing and enduring patterns of behavior, they are most often diagnosed in adulthood. It is uncommon for them to be diagnosed in childhood or adolescence, because a child or teen is under constant development, personality changes and maturation. However, if it is diagnosed in a child or teen, the features must have been present for at least 1 year.
Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder is approximately twice as prevalent in males than females, and occurs in between 2.1 and 7.9 percent of the general population.
Like most personality disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.

How is Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

Personality disorders such as  obsessive-compulsive  personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or  psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose obsessive-compulsive  personality disorder.
Many people with obsessive-compulsive  personality disorder don’t seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person’s life. This most often happens when a person’s coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.
A diagnosis for obsessive-compulsive   personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.

Causes of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

Researchers today don’t know what causes  obsessive-compulsive  personality disorder.  There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of  obsessive-compulsive  personality disorder.  Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation — that is, the causes of  are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual’s personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible — rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk   for this disorder to be “passed down” to their children.

Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

Treatment of obsessive-compulsive  personality disorder  typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see obsessive-compulsive personality disorder treatment.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a mental health condition in which a person is preoccupied with rules, orderliness, and control.


OCPD tends to occur in families, so genes may be involved. A person's childhood and environment may also play roles.
This disorder can affect both men and women. It most often occurs in men.


OCPD has some of the same symptoms as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). But people with OCD have unwanted thoughts, while people with OCPD believe that their thoughts are correct. In addition, OCD often begins in childhood while OCPD usually starts in the teen years or early 20s.
People with either OCPD or OCD are high achievers and feel a sense of urgency about their actions. They may become very upset if other people interfere with their rigid routines. They may not be able to express their anger directly. People with OCPD have feelings that they consider more appropriate, like anxiety or frustration.
A person with OCPD has symptoms of perfectionism that usually begin by early adulthood. This perfectionism may interfere with the person's ability to complete tasks, because their standards are so rigid. They may withdraw emotionally when they are not able to control a situation. This can interfere with their ability to solve problems and form close relationships.
Other signs of OCPD include:
  • Over-devotion to work
  • Not being able to throw things away, even when the objects have no value
  • Lack of flexibility
  • Lack of generosity
  • Not wanting to allow other people to do things
  • Not willing to show affection
  • Preoccupation with details, rules, and lists

Exams and Tests

OCPD is diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation that assesses the history and severity of the symptoms.


Medicines may help reduce anxiety and depression from OCPD. Talk therapy is thought to be the most effective treatment for OCPD. In some cases, medicines combined with talk therapy is more effective than either treatment alone.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Outlook for OCPD tends to be better than that for other personality disorders. The rigidness and control of OCPD may prevent many of the complications such as drug abuse, which are common in other personality disorders.
The social isolation and difficulty handling anger that are common with OCPD may lead to depression and anxiety later in life.

Possible Complications

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Difficulty moving forward in career situations
  • Relationship difficulties

When to Contact a Medical Professional

See your health care provider or mental health professional if you or someone you know has symptoms of OCPD.

Alternative Names

Personality disorder - obsessive-compulsive


Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personalitydisorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2008:chap 39.

Update Date: 11/17/2012

Updated by: Timothy Rogge, MD, Medical Director, Family Medical Psychiatry Center, Kirkland, WA. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is characterized by an inflexible adherence to rules or systems or an affinity to cleanliness and orderly structure.
OCPD is sometimes referred to as Anankastic Personality Disorder.
OCPD people may be mistrusting of others who may not hold the same convictions or understand their need for things to be just right. They may have trouble delegating, trusting others, sharing responsibilities or compromising. They may be obsessively clean or hygienic.

Although they may be similar, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is a different condition from the more commonly known Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is often characterized by a repetition or adherence to rituals. OCPD is characterized more by an unhealthy adherence to perfectionism.

Characteristics & Traits
Every relationship between a Personality-Disordered Individual and a Non Personality-Disordered Individual is as unique as the DNA of the people involved. Nevertheless, there are some common behavior patterns.
The following are descriptions of characteristics and behaviors which may be observed in an individual who suffers from obsessive compulsive personality disorder. This list includes direct traits which occur in OCPD sufferers and comorbid traits from other related personality disorders which may also occur in an OCPD sufferer. The list below contains descriptions as observed by family members and partners. Examples are given of each trait, with descriptions of what it feels like to be caught in the crossfire and some good (and bad) ideas for coping.
Please note that these descriptions are not intended for diagnosis. No one person exhibits all of the traits and the presence of one or more traits is not evidence of a personality disorder. See our disclaimer for more info. For a list of traits used in clinical diagnosis of OCPD refer to the OCPD DSM Criteria section below.
These descriptions are offered in the hope that non-personality-disordered family members, caregivers & loved-ones might recognize some similarities to their own situation and discover that they are not alone. Click on the links to read more about each trait.
Alienation - The act of cutting off or interfering with an individual's relationships with others.
"Always" and "Never" Statements - "Always" and "Never" Statements are declarations containing the words "always" or "never". They are commonly used but rarely true.
Anger - People who suffer from personality disorders often feel a sense of unresolved anger and a heightened or exaggerated perception that they have been wronged, invalidated, neglected or abused.
Avoidance - The practice of withdrawing from relationships with other people as a defensive measure to reduce the risk of rejection, accountability, criticism or exposure.
Blaming - The practice of identifying a person or people responsible for creating a problem, rather than identifying ways of dealing with the problem.
Catastrophizing - The habit of automatically assuming a "worst case scenario" and inappropriately characterizing minor or moderate problems or issues as catastrophic events.
Circular Conversations - Arguments which go on almost endlessly, repeating the same patterns with no resolution.
Denial - Believing or imagining that some painful or traumatic circumstance, event or memory does not exist or did not happen.
Depression - When you feel sadder than you think you should, for longer than you think you should - but still can't seem to break out of it - that's depression. People who suffer from personality disorders are often also diagnosed with depression resulting from mistreatment at the hands of others, low self-worth and the results of their own poor choices.
Sense of Entitlement - An unrealistic, unmerited or inappropriate expectation of favorable living conditions and favorable treatment at the hands of others.
Hoarding - Accumulating items to an extent that it becomes detrimental to quality of lifestyle, comfort, security or hygiene.
Hysteria - An inappropriate over-reaction to bad news or disappointments, which diverts attention away from the real problem and towards the person who is having the reaction.
Manipulation - The practice of steering an individual into a desired behavior for the purpose of achieving a hidden personal goal.
Mood Swings - Unpredictable, rapid, dramatic emotional cycles which cannot be readily explained by changes in external circumstances.
No-Win Scenarios - When you are manipulated into choosing between two bad options
Objectification - The practice of treating a person or a group of people like an object.
Panic Attacks - Short intense episodes of fear or anxiety, often accompanied by physical symptoms, such as hyperventilating, shaking, sweating and chills.
Passive-Aggressive Behavior - Expressing negative feelings in an unassertive, passive way.
Perfectionism - The maladaptive practice of holding oneself or others to an unrealistic, unattainable or unsustainable standard of organization, order, or accomplishment in one particular area of living, while sometimes neglecting common standards of organization, order or accomplishment in other areas of living.
Projection - The act of attributing one's own feelings or traits to another person and imagining or believing that the other person has those same feelings or traits.
Proxy Recruitment - A way of controlling or abusing another person by manipulating other people into unwittingly backing “doing the dirty work”
Push-Pull - A chronic pattern of sabotaging and re-establishing closeness in a relationship without appropriate cause or reason.
Ranking and Comparing - Drawing unnecessary and inappropriate comparisons between individuals or groups.
Selective Memory and Selective Amnesia - The use of memory, or a lack of memory, which is selective to the point of reinforcing a bias, belief or desired outcome.
Sabotage - The spontaneous disruption of calm or status quo in order to serve a personal interest, provoke a conflict or draw attention.
Selective Competence - Demonstrating different levels of intelligence, memory, resourcefulness, strength or competence depending on the situation or environment.
Splitting - The practice of regarding people and situations as either completely "good" or completely "bad".
Thought Policing - A process of interrogation or attempt to control another individual's thoughts or feelings.
Triggering -Small, insignificant or minor actions, statements or events that produce a dramatic or inappropriate response.
Tunnel Vision - A tendency to focus on a single concern, while neglecting or ignoring other important priorities.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) - The DSM Criteria
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is listed in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM) as a Cluster C (anxious or fearful) Personality Disorder.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is defined by exhibiting at least four of the following:
  1. Preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost.
  2. Showing perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met).
  3. Excessive devotion to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity).
  4. Being over conscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification).
  5. Inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
  6. Reluctance to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things.
  7. Adopting a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes.
  8. Shows rigidity and stubbornness.

OCPD Treatment
Treatment of OCPD is usually centered around a combination of psychotherapy and behavioral therapy. Secondary symptoms such as depression and anxiety are often treated using antidepressants. See out Treatment Page for lots more information about treatment of personality disorders

Movies Portraying Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Traits
Strictly speaking, these movies portray individuals with the closely related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
As Good As It Gets - As Good As It Gets s a 1997 romantic comedy starring Jack Nicholson who portrays an obsessive-compulsive author and Helen Hunt, who plays a waitress who has to deal with him.
Mommie Dearest - Mommie Dearest is a 1981 biography of Hollywood Actress Joan Crawford, played by Faye Dunaway, who, according to the account in the movie, exhibited Obsessive Compulsive, Borderline and Narcissistic Traits.
Sleeping With The Enemy - Sleeping with the Enemy is a 1991 psychological thriller starring Julia Roberts, who tries to escape from her abusive husband, who suffers from Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder.
The Aviator - The Aviator is a 2004 drama film starring Leonardo DiCaprio based on the life of aviation pioneer Howard Hughes, a successful inventor, film producer and aviation pioneer who exhibits a number of severe obsessive-compulsive traits.

OCPD Support Groups & Links:
Out of the FOG Support Forum - Visit the support forum here at Out of the FOG. - Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Support Group - for those with OCPD and their loved ones.

For More Information & Support...
If you suspect you may have a family member or loved-one who suffers from a personality disorder, we encourage you to learn all you can and surround yourself with support as you learn how to cope.
 Most of us have one or two things in life we like a certain way. Perhaps we can’t bear mess at home, hate things not going to schedule, or tend to be a bit controlling in relationships.
For a person with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) the need to control life – for things to be orderly, perfect – is far from limited and occasional. Instead it’s an all pervasive focus that comes before everything, including relationships and having fun. As the name suggests, there is an obsessive aspect to the disorder (such as keeping lists and making rigorous schedules) and a compulsive aspect (such as overworking even if there is no economic advantage to be gained).

It’s important to note that, as with all personality disorders, there is a spectrum between ‘normal’ and the disorder. So even if you are convinced that you or someone you know ‘matches’ some of the symptoms of OPCD, it doesn’t necessarily mean they have the disorder. A few symptoms does not always a disorder make. When someone actually has a personality disorder it is not just an inconvenience, but affects their ability to function on a daily basis and it affects all their relationships.

What is Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder?

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a personality disorder that affects about 1% of the population, and is diagnosed in twice as many men than women.
Symptoms vary on a case by case basis, but the disorder is at heart an obsession with order and control over ones thoughts, environment, and relationships. This can manifest as rigidity in thinking and actions, extreme perfectionism, anxiety and/or anger when things don’t go according to plan, and excessive attention to detail, amongst other symptoms.
It’s also known as “anankastic personality disorder”.

Isn’t Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Also Called OCD?

ocd 500x375 What is Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder?No. OCPD is NOT the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
They are distinct from each other despite some similarities. Both conditions leave an individual needing to feel organised and in control. Both can involve an obsession with personal rituals and routines, rigid behaviour, and hoarding.
The crucial difference is one of perspective – how people who suffer from these conditions view themselves. A person with OCD is aware that their behaviours are not normal and don’t enjoy or want to have their obsessive patterns. They are fully cognisant that their behaviour is a result of their anxiety.
A person with OCPD, however, don’t think there is anything wrong with them necessarily. They think they are the rational ones, and actually want to behave the way they do.
This makes obsessive-compulsive personality disorder a personality disorder, whereas OCD is an anxiety disorder. It’s also thought obsessive compulsive disorder has more of a biological aspect than OCPD.

Symptoms of OCPD

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM), a book written by and for mental health professionals, gives the following outline of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder:
A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:
1. is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organisation, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
2. shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)
3. is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)
4. is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
5. is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
6. is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
7. adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
8. shows rigidity and stubbornness
cleaning windows 500x333 What is Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder?Other symptoms of OCPD are thought to include the following:
  • Black and white thinking
  • Pessimism and low moods
  • Excessively doubtful and cautious
  • Easily angry or even violent with others who question their rigidity
  • Obsession with tidiness and cleanliness
  • Over-focus on achievement to the exclusion of pleasure and relationships
  • A tendency to try and demand others do things their way

What Might it be Like to Spend Time With Someone With OCPD?

For starters, you might not be hanging around them very much unless you work with them. People who suffer from OCPD are often very devoted to their work, putting relationships at the bottom of the priority pile and not often fans of ‘leisure activities’. In fact relaxing is something that is very hard for them because they have a sense of a clock ticking away, stopping them from achieving what they feel they must.
You will have to follow their agenda. They will know exactly the way they want their day to go and will be unbending with their schedule. And whatever you do, don’t plan a surprise – individuals with OCPD require that things be predictable and really dislike it if things aren’t.
They will not want to hear your opinion or to have theirs challenged. rarely flexible on their values or ideas on the way the world works. Their way or the highway.
Prepare to feel criticised. Family members of OCPD sufferers often report feeling controlled and put down, and find the demands put forth by the individual with OCPD upsetting.
They probably won’t be treating you or arriving with flowers. People with OCPD are known to be miserly with money because they hoard in the fear of future disaster.
Of course if you are working with them, they might be someone you admire and tip toe around, doing your best to support their ideas. While OCPD can make family and leisure life challenging, in the workplace their extreme meticulousness and attention to detail can be seen as a real asset or even a form of genius.

 Famous People with OCPD

These famous people were rumoured to have OCPD:
  • Steve Jobs, former CEO of Apple
  • Estee Lauder, highly successful businesswoman and co-founder of Estee Lauder Companies
  • Henry Heinz, founder of the H J Heinz Company

How is Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Diagnosed?

There is not an obsessive-compulsive personality ‘test’ per se. A psychological evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. They will make a diagnosis only after looking at the severity of symptoms present and a history of onset (OCPD usually starts in teens or young adults).

 Related Mental Health Problems

People with OCPD have a high risk of depression and anxiety disorders such as generalised anxiety disorder and specific phobias.
The intense need to control things may lead some with the disorder to eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia.
What Causes OCPD?
angry 500x332 What is Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder?As with many mental disorders, there are several theories as to what causes obsessive compulsive personality disorder, and likely it is a combination of factors that lead the onset of the disorder in a particular individual.
There is thought to be a genetic basis for the disorder. In other words, if a person has a certain gene they are thought to be more likely to develop OCPD – but this is as of yet not strictly proven.
A gene would, in any case, need to be triggered by life events or it can stay dormant, so environment is a crucial part of someone acquiring the disorder.
Traumatic experiences as a child, including all forms of abuse, will trigger the onset of OCPD.Is is further suggested that OCPD can develop if the child is harshly punished by their parents. They would feel a need to be ‘perfect’ to avoid further negative attention.
It is also suggested OCPD can be learned. If a child grows up around an adult who is controlling and rigid, or overly protective, which can be a parent, guardian, or even teacher, they will copy that behaviour and take it into their own adulthood.

Are there any Treatments for OCPD?

Personality disorders are notoriously difficult to treat, not least because the individual in question often does not want to admit there is anything wrong but sees their behaviour as desirable. It’s also rare for a person with OCPD to seek help unless a big life challenge occurs to motivate them, such as a relationship breakdown or redundancy at work.
Medication alone is not recommended, although it can be prescribed by a psychiatrist and help in conjunction with psychotherapy. Medications can help certain symptoms bought on by OCPD such as depression and anxiety. There is no medication that is purely for OCPD.
talk 450x600 What is Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder?Psychotherapy has been shown to produce results by helping create behavioural changes and increase coping mechanisms as well as challenging unreasonable expectations and teaching sufferers how to value relationships and recreation.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in particular is a recommended obsessive-compulsive personality disorder treatment. It can help a sufferer recognise the connection between their anxiety and thoughts and their behaviour.
Psychodynamic therapy, with its focus on helping a client gain insight into themselves and their behaviour, is also seen as helpful.
Mindfulness- based therapy, with its focus on present moment awareness over excessive worry about the past and future, is the latest to be recommended for OCPD. It helps reduce the anxiety, depression, perfectionism and stress the condition brings.
If friends and family cooperate with an individual’s recovery it is helpful as they can offer valuable feedback. A big part of recovery is for the individual with OCPD to recognise their behavioural patterns and understand how their behaviour comes across.
Self-help wise, journalling can also help a sufferer begin to recognise how their anxieties trigger behaviour.
Support groups are recommended. Meeting with others with OCPD allows sufferers to learn coping mechanisms that work from others going through the same thing.
Relaxation techniques are also thought to be helpful for sufferers of OCPD, as they can reduce the anxiety that is such a big part of the condition.
Complete recovery from OCPD, as with all personality disorders, is, however, very rare.

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